Plants are rooted to the ground or free floating, and produce their own food via photosynthesis. Leaf arrangement is alternate, opposite, whorled, or basal. Leaves are simple or compound. Compound leaves may be pinnately or palmately compound.


There is no taxonomic rank for trees. A tree is always a woody perennial, and usually has a solitary trunk. The difference between a large shrub and a small tree may be a matter of opinion, especially if it forms thickets.
Coral Honeysuckle
There is no taxonomic rank for vines. Here are some of the more common perennial vines.

Vascular Plants -- Division Tracheophyta

Philadelphia Fleabane
Flowering Plants — Class Magnoliopsida
Almost all of our native vascular plants produce flowers. This includes plants with inconspicuous flowers such as grasses and other wind-pollinated plants.
Loblolly Pine
Conifers — Class Pinopsida
Kunth's Maiden Fern
Ferns — Class Polypodiopsida
No image available.
Clubmosses, Spikemosses, and Quillworts — Class Lycopodiopsida
Tall Scouring-rush
Horsetails — Genus Equisetum
Class Equisetopsida. Family Equisetaceae.
No image available.
Whisk Fern —  Psilotum nudum [1]
Class Psilotopsida. Family Psilotaceae.
No image available.
Jointfir — Genus Ephedra
Class Gnetopsida. Family Ephedraceae.

Non-vascular Plants

Non-vascular Land Plants — Division Bryophyta
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
No image available.
Stoneworts — Family Characeae
Division Charophyta.

Many revisions are currently being discussed in the plant kingdom. Texas Nature is migrating towards following the Integrated Taxonomic Information System.
Evidence that species is found in Texas:
  1. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Texas, Volume 2, B.L. Turner, Holly Nichols, Geoffrey Denny and Oded Doron, Botanical Research Institute of Texas (BRIT), Fort Worth, Texas, 2003.